11 DAYS, 11 LOCATIONS, 11 ATTITUDES: the scientific aspect
The project consists of two main parts: a website
and a documentary.
After taking a closer look at these, it’s necessary to give
some information about the basic theory behind the project.
1) The Website:
Starting with this website we intend to create an internet platform
for any kind of soccer fan, with the possibility to participate
in our project. This means: fans are asked to get in touch with
the film crew by making contact via the website. And it´s
very simple. Just enter our CONTACT ZONE on www.11eleven.at and
tell us your motivation for being a soccer fanatic. Send us pictures,
texts or soundfiles, or apply for our online-casting via e-mail
and be an active part in the project!
This means fans will get the chance to meet the filmmakers on chosen
locations to talk about their personal attitude towards their favourite
From the 16th to the 27th , of June, our 11 days of filming on
location in Portugal, the website will feature an audio and video
based diary of the daily outcomes. We will show our working methods
and give you a realtime overlook of the developing project.
2) The documentary:
The second part of 11attitudes consists of the documentary film
itself, where we will put the highlights of our collected material
together to produce a serious filmographic insight into soccer fandom.
The final outcome will be a DVD, which will presumably be released
in September 2004.
This means fans will get the chance to meet with the filmmakers
on chosen locations to talk about their personal feelings for their
favourite passion – SOCCER.
The film team, accompanied by a sociologist and a cultural anthropologist
will choose 11 locations over the duration of 11 days to portrait
11 different attitudes from fans of different nations, with a special
focus on the Portuguese fan scene.
3) Theoretical – analytical basis:
Soccer is a mass phenomenon as well as a mass media phenomenon.
Since its invention in the 19th century soccer has been a background
for social, political and cultural developments, on which collective
wishes and conflicts were projected*.
Forced by processes of professionalism and commercialization which
are enhanced by mass-media, soccer has adjusted its cultural appearance,
from an element of proletarian culture to a part of today´s
The show-character of professional soccer has affected the way
how viewers experience it. Viewers have to be divided in active
(in the stadium) and passive supporters (in front of TV). Pure passive
supporters normally don’t go to the stadium regularly. They
are used to changing cameras and angles, slow motions, professional
commentators, “best-of”-scenes, etc, and therefore experience
soccer in the stadium as boring or at least as worse than on TV.
This rises the question if supporters at an international championship
are mainly active supporters. It is no question that they play an
important part in the game: they are the indespensible atmospherheric
escort of their team and can be considerably responsible for the
result of the match.
1) The social-historical approach:
the civilisation-specific variant works mainly on violence and sports.
The basical theory is: violence is a part of sports and therefore
for soccer as well.
The class-specific variant works on the connection between ways
of lives and soccer-culture.
2) The class-theoretical approach:
works on detailled and new social developments. The disposition-concept
of Pierre Bourdieu (1979) is used in this context to be able to
3) The subcultural approach: emphasises on the aesthetic component
4) Organisation-related approaches work on the internal strucuture
and the function of fanclubs.
5) Psychological approaches emphasise on individual behaviour mainly
Concept 2), 3), and 4) are relevant for the project. These five
approaches are of course not complete, much more has been published,
but these are the most popular ones.
Motivations of soccer-fans:
- Consumption-orientated fans want to experience exciting situations,
presented by others. The success of the supported team is inherently
necessary. The group orientation is rather low.
- For soccer-orientated fans the experience of exciting situations
stands in close relationship to the athletic performance. Loyalty
is more important than success. Group orientation exists.
- Event-orientated fans see soccer as a show and exciting situation
that they produce themselves. Groups are not stable**.
The form of questioning is narrative:
Premises of the interview: The conversation should be open-minded.
It should be narrative as well as interrogative(with a determined
goal). The questioning should be flexible, but with a concept apt
to proove the hypothesis.
the whole description
* Horak, Roman/ Reiter, Wolfgang (Hg.):
„Die Kanten des runden Leders – Beiträge zur europäischen
Fussballkultur“, Promedia, Wien 1991, S.9.
** Heitmeyer, Wilhelm/ Peter, Jörg-Ingo:
„Jugendliche Fussballfans – Soziale und politische Orientierungen,
Gesellungsformen, Gewalt“, Juventa, Weinheim und München